Malaria is a treatable and preventable disease. In the treatment of Malaria, the primary objective is to make sure it is cured completely which is the rapid elimination of plasmodium parasites from the patient’s blood in order to terminate the progression and prevent uncomplicated Malaria to severe disease or death and as well prevent chronic or acute Malaria related disease like anaemia. From a public health perspective, the main objectives of Malaria treatment is to prevent the spread of the infection to others by reducing the infection reservoir and to prevent the emergency and spread resistance to antimalarial drugs.
It is important that patients with suspected Malaria disease should quickly undergo parasitological confirmation of diagnosis with either microscope or Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before proceeding with antimalarial treatment. Treatment based on clinical ground should only be given if diagnostic testing is not immediately available or accessible within two(2) hours before patients presenting for treatment. Prompt-treatment within 24 hours of sign of fever onset- with effective and safe antimalarial drugs is important to effect and prevent life-threatening complications.
Treatment of uncomplicated Malaria.
Treatment of p. Falciparum infections, there are many treatment option of malaria disease. World Health Organization recommend artemisinin-based combination therapy(ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated Malaria infection caused by p. Falciparum parasite. You can get yourself rid of malaria infection by simple combination of two active ingredients with different mechanism of action, ACT are the most effective antimalarial drugs available in all pharmaceutical shops today.
According World Health Organization WHO recommend five ACT drugs to use against p. Falciparum Malaria. Howethe choice of ACT to use should be based on the result of individual efficacy studies compared with the local strain of p. Falciparum malaria. ACT is the backbone of all antimalarial medicine and has been recommended by WHO for effective treatment of p Falciparum infection. It is recommended by WHO that all National Malaria Control programmes regularly monitor the efficacy of antimalarial drugs in use to ensure that the preferred treatment is safe and effective. In low transmission areas (where the spread of malaria infection is low), primaquine should be added to antimalarial drugs in order to further reduce the transmission of the infection.
Note: Testing for glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency is not required, as single dose of primaquine is effective in blocking transmission and unlikely to cause major toxicity with any individual with G6PD deficiency variant.
Treatment of P. Vivax infection: P. Vivax infection should be treated with ACT or chloroquine in areas without chloroquine-resistance p. Vivax. In areas where chloroquine-resistance p vivax has been identified, infection should be treated with ACT, preferably one in which the partner medicine has long-life. With the exception of artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamin(AS+SP) combination, all ACTs are effective against blood stage infection of p .vivax. However in order to avoid relapse, primaquine should be added to the treatment; dose and frequency should be guided by the patient’s G6PD enzyme activity.
Treatment of Severe Malaria infection: The treatment of severe Malaria infection should be through injectable artesunate (either intracellular or intravenous) for a minimum of 24 hour followed by a complete 3-day course of ACT once the patient’s can tolerate oral medicine. When injectable treatment cannot be obtained, children under 6 years of age with severe should be given pre referral treatment with rectal artesunate before proceeding with immediate referral to a health care facility where they can access full level of care.
It is essential that neither artemisinin-based injectable nor artesunate suppositories be used as monotherapy. In the initial treatment of severe malaria With this medicine needs to be completed with a 3-day course of ACT. This is to ensure complete cure and prevent the development of resistance to artemisinin derivatives